|Origin||Inferior part of the intertrochanteric line
Medial lip of the linea aspera
Proximal part of the medial supracondylar line
Adductor longus muscle
Adductor magnus muscle
Medial intermuscular septum
|Insertion||Medial border of the patella
The patellar tendon inserts onto the tibial tuberosity
|Action||Extends the knee|
Location & Overview
The vastus medialis is the most medial of the four quadriceps muscles. The remaining three are: the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius and the vastus lateralis. The vastus medialis is located in the medial thigh within the anterior compartment of thigh .
The most distal muscle fibres of the vastus medialis are usually referred to as the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) . There has been some discussion in the past as to whether the VMO is actually a separate muscle with its own innervation. This is because some anatomy studies had not found it to be separate   . However, in general, the presence of the VMO is often accepted by anatomists and surgeons . Research has also shown that the VMO is innervated by a distinct branch of this femoral nerve comparative to the rest of the muscle . It is thought that weakness in the VMO can lead to patellofemoral pain syndrome. The cause of the condition is thought to be due to an imbalance in the activity between the VMO and the vastus lateralis muscle .
Origin & Insertion
The vastus medialis originates from the inferior part of the intertrochanteric line, spiral line (pectineal line), medial lip of the linea aspera, proximal part of the medial supracondylar line, the adductor longus, adductor magnus and medial intermuscular septum (fascia) .
The vastus medialis’ primary action is extension of the knee. It works alongside the other quadricep muscles (the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius and the vastus lateralis) to extend the knee. It also works together with the vastus lateralis to stabilise the knee joint  .
The vastus medialis is innervated by the femoral nerve. The distal oblique fibers (the VMO) are innervated by a distinct branch of this femoral nerve comparative to the rest of the muscle .
Blood is supplied to the vastus medialis from the superficial femoral artery as well as the deep femoral artery .
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Vastus Medialis Flashcards
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|↑2, ↑6||Waligora AC, Johanson NA, Hirsch BE. Clinical anatomy of the quadriceps femoris and extensor apparatus of the knee. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467(12):3297-3306. doi:10.1007/s11999-009-1052-y|
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|↑7, ↑10, ↑15||Toumi H, Poumarat G, Benjamin M, Best TM, F’Guyer S, Fairclough J. New insights into the function of the vastus medialis with clinical implications. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Jul;39(7):1153-9. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0b013e31804ec08d. Erratum in: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 May;40(5):982. Best, Thomas [corrected to Best, Thomas M]. PMID: 17596784.|
|↑8||Waryasz GR, McDermott AY. Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS): a systematic review of anatomy and potential risk factors. Dyn Med. 2008 Jun 26;7:9. doi: 10.1186/1476-5918-7-9. PMID: 18582383; PMCID: PMC2443365.|
|↑9||Rajput HB, Rajani SJ, Vaniya VH. Variation in Morphometry of Vastus Medialis Muscle. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11(9):AC01-AC04. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2017/29162.10527|
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|↑13||Hyong IH, Kang JH. Activities of the Vastus Lateralis and Vastus Medialis Oblique Muscles during Squats on Different Surfaces. J Phys Ther Sci. 2013;25(8):915-917. doi:10.1589/jpts.25.915|
|↑14||Bordoni B, Varacallo M. Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and Lower Limb, Thigh Quadriceps Muscle. 2021 Jul 22. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–. PMID: 30020706.|
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