|Insertion||Trochanteric fossa of the femur|
|Action||Lateral rotation of hip|
Assists with abduction when hip is flexed
|Nerve||Nerve to quadratus femoris (L5, S1)|
|Artery||Inferior gluteal artery|
Location & Overview
The inferior gemellus is one of the two gemellus muscles. The inferior gemellus is located inferior to (below) the superior gemellus and is also superior to (above) the quadratus femoris muscle. Both of these gemellus muscles are collectively known as the gemelli muscles, and they are two of the six external rotator muscles of the gluteal region. The other four muscles are: the obturator externus, obturator internus, quadratus femoris, and piriformis. Both gemelli muscles connect to the obturator internus muscle via a conjoined tendon. The combination of these three muscles is sometimes referred to as the ‘triceps coxae’  .
Origin & Insertion
The inferior gemellus originates on the ischial tuberosity. The ischial tuberosity is a prominent bony protrusion on the ischium, one of the three bones that make up the pelvis. The insertion for the inferior gemellus is located on the trochanteric fossa of the femur. The trochanteric fossa is a deep depression located on the medial side of the greater trochanter of the femur  .
The primary action of the inferior gemellus is lateral (external) rotation of the hip joint. Additionally, when the hip is flexed, the muscle can also aid in abduction of the hip. However, it’s worth noting that the force the gemelli muscles provide for abduction is significantly weaker than that of larger muscles, such as the gluteal muscles  .
The inferior gemellus is innervated by the ‘nerve to quadratus femoris’, which originates from the spinal roots of L5 and S1. This nerve also innervates the quadratus femoris muscle. This nerve passes through the greater sciatic foramen as it leaves the pelvic cavity. It also passes underneath the piriformis muscle as it enters the gluteal region  .
Blood is supplied to the inferior gemellus muscle via the inferior gluteal artery. This artery arises from the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery 
Want some flashcards to help you remember this information? Then click the link below:
Inferior Gemellus Flashcards
|↑1, ↑3, ↑5, ↑7||Dalley AF II, Agur AMR. Moore’s Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 9th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2022.|
|↑2, ↑4, ↑6, ↑8, ↑9||Lezak B, Massel DH. Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and Lower Limb, Gemelli Muscles. [Updated 2022 Aug 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557420/|