Biceps Brachii Muscle Anatomy

Overview
Origin Short head: coracoid process of the scapula
Long head: supraglenoid tubercle
Insertion Radial tuberosity
Bicipital aponeurosis (deep forearm fascia)
Action Elbow flexion
Shoulder flexion/dynamic stability
Supination of radioulnar joint
Nerve Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6)
Artery Brachial artery

Location & Overview

The biceps brachii muscle is sometimes referred to as the ‘biceps’ or ‘bis’. The biceps full Latin name of: ‘musculus biceps brachii’ means ‘two-headed muscle of the arm’ when translated from Latin to English. The biceps brachii consists of two heads: a long head (caput longum) and a short head (caput breve). It is located on the anterior side of the upper arm and lies superficial to the coracobrachialis and brachialis muscles [1] [2].

Biceps Brachii muscle

Here we can see the Biceps Brachii muscle in isolation.

Origin & Insertion

The short head of the biceps brachii originates from the tip of the coracoid process of the scapula. The long head originates at the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula/glenoid. These two separate heads of the biceps brachii begin at the proximal portion of the humerus then come together as they descend distally. As they reach the distal portion of the humerus, they merge together to form a single muscle belly. This combined muscle belly then inserts at the radial tuberosity. The biceps brachii also inserts into fascia on the medial part of the forearm via the bicipital aponeurosis [3] [4] [5].

origin of the long head of thje biceps brachii at the supraglenoid tubercle

Highlighted in red we can see the origin of the long head of thje biceps brachii at the supraglenoid tubercle.

origin of the short head of the biceps brachii at the coracoid process of the scapula

Highlighted in red we can see the origin of the short head of the biceps brachii at the coracoid process of the scapula.

insertion of the biceps brachii to the radial tuberosity

Highlighted in blue we can see the insertion of the biceps brachii to the radial tuberosity.

bicipital aponeurosis of the biceps brachii

Highlighted in blue we can see the bicipital aponeurosis of the biceps brachii which connects into the deep fascia of the forearm.

Actions

The primary action of the biceps brachii is elbow flexion[6]. It can also assist in shoulder flexion/dynamic stability[7] and supination of radioulnar joint (supinating the forearm)[8].

Innervation

The biceps brachii is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6) [9].

Blood Supply

Blood is supplied to the biceps brachii from the brachial artery [10].

Want some flashcards to help you remember this information? Then click the link below:
Biceps Brachii Flashcards

References

References
1, 3, 9, 10 Tiwana MS, Charlick M, Varacallo M. Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Biceps Muscle. [Updated 2021 Aug 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519538/
2 Moore KL, Agur AMR, Dalley AF. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins; 2017.
4 Hutchinson HL, Gloystein D, Gillespie M. Distal biceps tendon insertion: an anatomic study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2008 Mar-Apr;17(2):342-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2007.05.005. Epub 2007 Nov 1. PMID: 17931901.
5 Eames MH, Bain GI, Fogg QA, van Riet RP. Distal biceps tendon anatomy: a cadaveric study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 May;89(5):1044-9. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.D.02992. PMID: 17473142.
6, 8 Landin D, Thompson M, Jackson MR. Actions of the Biceps Brachii at the Shoulder: A Review. J Clin Med Res. 2017;9(8):667-670. doi:10.14740/jocmr2901w
7 Landin D, Myers J, Thompson M, Castle R, Porter J. The role of the biceps brachii in shoulder elevation. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2008 Apr;18(2):270-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2006.09.012. Epub 2006 Dec 28. PMID: 17196396.